Handy Substitutions

If you Need . . .
You Can Use
1 tablespoon tapioca 1 tablespoon all-purpose flour and 1 teaspoon corn starch
1 teaspoon cornstarch or arrowroot 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon baking powder 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1 cup self-rising flour 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 teaspoon baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup cake flour 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons
1 cup all-purpose flour 1 cup cake flour plus 2 tablespoons
1-ounce square unsweetened chocolate 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or margarine
1 cup honey 1-1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup water
1 teaspoon allspice 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves
1 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ginger, 1/8 teaspoon allspice, 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg
1 teaspoon apple pie spice 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg, 1/8 teaspoon cardamom
1 tablespoon chopped fresh herbs 1 teaspoon dried herbs or 1/4 teaspoon powdered herbs
1 teaspoon dry mustard 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
1 cup fresh milk 3 to 5 tablespoons nonfat dry milk powder in 1 cup water
1 cup fresh milk 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water
1 cup buttermilk or sour milk 1 tablespoon lemon juice or white vinegar plus sweet milk to equal 1 cup
1 cup yogurt 1 cup buttermilk or sour milk
1 cup sour cream 1 tablespoon lemon juice plus evaporated milk to equal 1 cup
2 large eggs 3 small eggs
1 egg 2 egg yolks plus 1 tablespoon water (for cookies)
1 cup uncooked macaroni 2 cups cooked macaroni
1 cup uncooked rice 3 cups cooked rice

Real Cooking

For cheese and chocolate fondue use shallow, heavy bottomed cast-iron or porcelain fondue pot. Do not use a porcelain fondue pot for meat because they will not withstand the high temperature required for oil.

Never use fondue forks for dipping, because that may transfer sauce to the cooking oil, creating sediment in the oil, and reduce frying temperature.

Use fondue forks with different shaped handles or colors so guests can determine whose forks are whose.

Never try to eat directly from the fondue fork because they can get extremely hot. Dinner forks should be available.

Proper fondue plates should have separate compartments for sauces, vegetables, and meat. Uncooked meat and vegetables should be always served separately. To serve sauces you can also use small bowls.

Serve cheese fondues with various breads for dipping. Even stale bread can taste delicious when swirled in the creamy cheese sauce. Bread should include crusts to help stay on the forks.

Never fill more than 1/3 of the fondue pot with melted cheese, oil or chocolate because it may bubble up when raw food is added.

For a lighter healthy version of the meat fondue replace the cooking oil with stock or broth.

Serve raw meat, poultry and fish for fondue on beds of ice. Keep in mind that raw meat should not be left at room temperature for more than 2 hours.

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