Wheat Nutrition

100 grams of hard red winter wheat contain about:
12.6 grams of protein,
1.5 grams of total fat,
71 grams of carbohydrate (by difference),
12.2 grams of dietary fiber, and
3.2 mg of iron (17% of the daily requirement);

100 grams of hard red spring wheat contains about:
15.4 grams of protein,
1.9 grams of total fat,
68 grams of carbohydrate (by difference),
12.2 grams of dietary fiber, and
3.6 mg of iron (20% of the daily requirement).

Gluten, a protein found in wheat (and other Triticeae), cannot be tolerated by people with celiac disease (an autoimmune disorder).

Much of the carbohydrate fraction of wheat is starch. Wheat starch is an important commercial product of wheat, but second in economic value to wheat gluten.

The principal parts of wheat flour are gluten and starch. These can be separated in a kind of home experiment, by mixing flour and water to form a small ball of dough, and kneading it gently while rinsing it in a bowl of water. The starch falls out of the dough and sinks to the bottom of the bowl, leaving behind a ball of gluten.

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Did You Know?
Roughly 1% of the population has coeliac (also written as celiac) disease—a condition that is caused by an adverse immune system reaction to gliadin, a gluten protein found in wheat (and similar proteins of the tribe Triticeae which includes other species such as barley and rye). Upon exposure to gliadin, the enzyme tissue transglutaminase modifies the protein, and the immune system cross-reacts with the bowel tissue, causing an inflammatory reaction. That leads to flattening of the lining of the small intestine, which interferes with the absorption of nutrients. The only effective treatment is a lifelong gluten-free diet. While the disease is caused by a reaction to wheat proteins, it is not the same as wheat allergy.