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GLOSSARY OF BUSINESS AND FINANCIAL TERMS

C

CALENDAR YEAR - A fiscal year from January 1 to December 31. 

CALLING A LOAN - A formal demand from a creditor for repayment of a loan.

CAPITAL - The owner's claim against assets through the owner's investment. The net worth of a business after the deduction of taxes and other liabilities. 

CASH - Money in hand or readily available ( cheques, money orders, money currency received, the amounts deposited in the firm's bank account, and so on. 

CASH BUDGET or CASH FLOW STATEMENT - A statement that shows cash flows (cash received and cash paid out) over a specified period of time. 

CASH DISCOUNT - A deduction that is given for prompt payment of a bill.

CASH FLOW - The movement of cash into and out of a business. 

CASH FLOW BUDGET or CASH BUDGET - The budget that shows cash flows (cash received and cash paid out) for a specific period of time. 

CASH RECEIPTS - The money received by a business from customers. 

CHART OF ACCOUNTS - The number plan listing all account titles in order and the
numbers assigned to each account. 

CHEQUE RECORD - The source document giving evidence of a cash payments transaction. 

CHEQUE STUB - A common form of cheque record. 

CLAIM - A demand for something due. 

COLLATERAL VALUE - The value assigned by the bank to an asset that serves as security for a loan. 

CONTRACT - An agreement regarding mutual responsibilities between two or more parties. 

CONTROLLABLE EXPENSES - Expenses that can be controlled or restrained by the business person. 

CORPORATION - A business venture comprising an individual or a group of individuals treated by the law as an individual. 

CO-SIGNERS - Joint singers of a loan or mortgage agreement, pledging to meet the obligations in case of default (they guarantee the loan or mortgage will be paid back and the lender can take legal action to take their property if they refuse to pay). 

COST OF GOODS SOLD or COST OF SALES - In a manufacturing business, this figure includes the cost of materials, labor and a portion of overhead. In a non manufacturing business it includes the cost of materials, duty and transport. 

COVENANT - A promise or legal agreement you make when getting a loan. You must adhere to these covenants for your loan to remain in good standing. 

CREDIT - In the language of bookkeeping - the right side of an account or an entry of money paid on account. 

CREDITORS - Persons or business firms that grant credit or goods. 

CREDIT RATING - The financial standing and a  business owner's (or individual) reputation for payment.


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