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Coenzyme Q10 (also known as ubidecarenone,
coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 – pronounced like
"ko-cue-ten" –, CoQ, Q10, or simply Q) is a vitamin-like nutrient
plays a vital role in cellular energy
production. It is also known as ubiquinone because its chemical
that of a quinone and it is ubiquitously distributed in nature.
Coenzyme Q10 is oil-soluble substance present in most eukaryotic cells,
primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron
transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration,
generating energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human
body’s energy is generated this way. Therefore, those organs with the
highest energy requirements—such as the heart and the liver—have the
highest CoQ10 concentrations.
CoQ compounds are widely distributed in nature, from microorganisms
to plants to animals including humans. In humans and several other
side chain is comprised of 10 isoprene units and hence the name CoQ10.
The various kinds of Coenzyme Q can
be distinguished by the number of isoprenoid side-chains
they have. The most common Coenzyme Q in human mitochondria is CoQ10.
CoQ10 was discovered by Dr. Frederick L. Crane and colleagues at the University of
in 1957 during his research on the biochemistry of the
electron transport chain, also known as the respiratory chain. The pure
substance isolated from beef heart mitochondria was sent to Dr. Karl
the pharmaceutical company Merck for identification and elucidation of
structure. In 1958, its chemical structure was reported by Dr. Karl Folkers and coworkers at Merck; in 1968, Folkers became a Professor
in the Chemistry Department at the University of Texas at Austin. Coenzyme was designated coenzyme Q10 because of its quinone
the ten isoprene unit side chain. During the same time period, another
scientists led by Dr. R. A. Morton in England isolated the same
mitochondria and named it ubiquinone because of its widespread
nature. The vital role of CoQ10 in the electron transport chain was
described by Dr. Peter Mitchell of England who was awarded the Nobel
Besides endogenous synthesis, CoQ10 is
also supplied to the
organism by various foods. Animal products such as beef, pork and
chicken are relatively good sources of
CoQ10. Organ meats such as heart and muscle are the best sources. As a
rule, tissues with high energy demands contain relatively high amounts
Dairy products are much poorer sources of CoQ10 compared
to animal tissues, while a
modest amount can be found in butter (7 mg/kg).
Fish and shellfish represent an important dietary source of CoQ10
(estimated at 9%-22% in different countries). Peanuts, sesame seeds and
pistachio are the richest CoQ10 representatives within nuts and seeds
with levels over 20 mg/kg. Many other nuts are also good sources of
this compound. Among foods of plant origin, parsley and perilla are the
richest CoQ10 sources, broccoli, rape, cauliflower, and spinach contain
CoQ10. Unrefined vegetable oils such as soybean oil, rapeseed oil,
olive oil and palm oil are
sources of CoQ10. Some oils, particularly corn oil, are much richer in
CoQ9 than in CoQ10.
CoQ10 is present in almost all the cells
in our body and also in
circulation (in lipoproteins). Practically every cell has the ability
synthesize CoQ10. The endogenous synthesis of CoQ10 happens to be a
process requiring numerous vitamins such as vitamin B6, vitamin B12,
niacinamide, pantothenic acid and vitamin C, and also certain trace
The quinone ring structure is derived from the amino acid tyrosine, the
groups on the ring supplied by methionine, and the isoprenoid side
from the mevalonate pathway (the same pathway shared by cholesterol).
production of CoQ10 is dependent on an adequate supply of numerous
and cofactors, and a deficiency of one or more of these essential
adversely affect the production of adequate amounts of CoQ10.
The Miracle Nutrient: Coenzyme Q10 - CoQ10
is a natural nutrient
essential to the life
and health of every
living cell. Without it, our bodies are unable to fight back
infections and disease. Unfortunately, many of us,
especially as we
age, lack sufficient CoQ10, putting us at risk of serious
Dr. Emile G. Bliznakov and medical writer Gerald L. Hunt tell the whole
remarkable story of this life-preserving nutrient already hailed as the
immune system miracle. They show that by supplementing your
natural ability to supply CoQ10, you may dramatically reverse the
effects of again, poor diet, and decreasing health to:
Revitalize the immune system and aid
in its defense against cancer infections.
Reverse the effects of again
Protect and strengthen the heart and
Normalize high blood pressure without
Control or even reverse periodontal
Energize your body and increase your
tolerance for exertion.
Reduce weight naturally without
dieting or drugs.
to include the latest medical studies and complete with dietary lists
and natural CoQ10 food sources, this important new book is the
definitive new guide to CoQ10--the miracle nutrient produced from
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factors reduce the concentration of CoQ10 in different
organs; the following are known:
- Use of statins reduce CoQ10 levels.
- Aging, in individuals older than 20 years, reduces CoQ10
levels in internal organs.
- UV exposure reduces CoQ10 levels in the skin.
* * *
Q10 shares a common biosynthetic pathway with
The synthesis of an intermediary precursor of coenzyme
Q10, mevalonate, is inhibited by some beta blockers, blood
pressure-lowering medication, and statins, a class of
Statins can reduce serum levels of coenzyme
Q10 by up to 40%.
Some research suggests the logical option of
supplementation with coenzyme Q10 as a routine adjunct to any treatment
that may reduce endogenous production of coenzyme Q10, based on a
balance of likely benefit against very small risk.
* * *
of coenzyme Q10 is a treatment for some of the very rare and serious
mitochondrial disorders and other metabolic
where patients are not capable of producing enough coenzyme Q10 because
of their disorder. Coenzyme Q10 is then prescribed by a physician.
* * *
Potential Beneficial Effects of CoQ10 Supplementation: